Understanding the research philosophy is a focal part in any academic research.
According to ‘Johnson and Christensen (2005)’, research paradigm is a perspective that is based on the set of shared assumptions, values, concepts and practices.
According to ‘Kuhn (1996)’, research philosophy refers to set of assumptions that refers by researcher during a study or research in a particular area.
There are various purposes of research philosophy in research methodology. It majorly helps to adapt appropriate or suitable methods or approaches through exploring various available and possible methods; and it also enables researcher to choose relevant methods by eliminating unnecessary work.
The research philosophies are majorly classified in three types; philosophy of positivism, philosophy of phenomenology or interpretivism and philosophy of realism. However, majority of studies adapt and follows philosophy of positivism and philosophy of phenomenology or interpretivism
Philosophy of Positivism
According to ‘Jankowicz (2005)’, philosophy of positivism is a system that emphasize to obtain knowledge through believing in description rather than questioning. As part of this, philosophy of positivism conceives the facts by recognising them through observation.
Moreover, the facts and observations in the philosophy of positivism can be countable, visible, and measurable. In the philosophy of positivism, a little account of feelings and beliefs of people or participants are taken as phenomena, whereas researcher is allowed to act as an independent in order to find facts towards objects.
Hence, philosophy of positivism considers quantitative related data to accomplish the aims and objectives.
Philosophy of Phenomenology
The philosophy of phenomenology is completely contrasted in the way of considering and approaching from philosophy of positivism, because it is concerned the things in real mean rather than measuring and counting the phenomena (Collis and Hussey, 2003).
In the philosophy of phenomenology, human experience, views, beliefs and inner feelings are conceived as valuable source of data. In the process of examining behaviour of people, philosophy of phenomenology considers some key techniques and methods such as observations, interviews and semi-structured based interviews.
The phenomenology or interpretivism takes a follows qualitative data techniques such as case studies, action research, interviews and others to accomplish objectives.