Home Human Resources Expectancy Theory | Essentials Of Motivation | Instrumentality | Valance

Expectancy Theory | Essentials Of Motivation | Instrumentality | Valance

The expectancy theory of motivation has become a commonly acknowledged model for enlightening how people make decisions on the subject of various behavioural alternatives.

Expectancy Theory | Essentials Of Motivation | Instrumentality | Valance expectancy theory Expectancy Theory | Essentials Of Motivation | Instrumentality | Valance Expectancy theory hrm
Expectancy Theory | Essentials Of Motivation | Instrumentality | Valance

Expectancy theory suggests that motivation depends on individuals’ anticipations about their capability to execute tasks and receive desired rewards.

The expectancy theory of motivation has become a commonly acknowledged model for enlightening how people make decisions on the subject of various behavioural alternatives.

Expectancy theory normally is sustained by empirical evidence and is one of the more extensively accepted models of motivation.

Expectancy theory compromises the following intentions:

  • As soon as ‘decision making time’ arrives pertaining to behavioural options selection process, people normally choose the preference with the utmost Motivation Forces (MF).
  • The motivational force for a behaviour, action, or task is a function of three diverse perceptions: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valance.

The motivational force is the creation of the three perceptions:

MF  =  Expectancy  x  Instrumentality  x  Valence

Expectancy probability: It is fundamentally based on the perceived effort-performance relationship.

It is the expectancy that one’s determination will lead to the desired performance and is based on previous knowledge or experience, self-confidence, and the perceived difficulty of the performance goal.

Example: If you work harder than everyone else in the company will you create or produce more?

Instrumentality probability:  It is primarily based on the perceived performance-reward relationship.

The instrumentality is the belief that if one does meet performance anticipations, he or she will be given a bigger reward.

Example: If you create or produce more than anyone else in the company, will you get a greater raise or an earlier promotion?

Valence: It basically refers to the value the individual personally places on the rewards. This is a function of his or her wants, goals, and principles.

Example: Do you want a better raise? Is it worth the extra effort? Do you want a promotion?

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Since the motivational force is the creation of the three perceptions, if any one of their values is zero, the whole equation becomes zero.

Expectancy theory normally is sustained by empirical evidence and is one of the more extensively accepted models of motivation.

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